Glossary


Acrobat
Adobe software suite used to convert electronic documents into Adobe PDF files that can be viewed, annotated, and printed on any computer.

Binding
the various methods used to secure loose leaves or sections in a book; e.g. saddle-stitch, perfect bound.

Bitmapped Image
also referred to as "pixilated" used to refer to an image that has too low of a resolution or linescreen for the output resolution ("That image looks bitmapped."; line art scanned at 72 dpi (typical web site graphic) when it is to be printed at 2540 dpi will be very coarsely bitmapped).

Bleed
layout, type or pictures that extend beyond the trim marks on a page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins are referred to as 'bled off'.

Border
a continuous decorative design or rule surrounding the matter on the page.

Byte
A unit of measure equal to eight bits of digital information (2^3). The standard unit measure of file size. See also kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte.

CMYK
CMYK (Cyan Magenta Yellow Black), also known as 4 colour process, is the colour space that is used to produce color on prints using different density of the 4 different coloured pigments.

Coated
printing papers which after making have had a surface coating with clay etc, to give a smoother, more even finish with greater opacity.

Coil Binding
(also known as "spiral binding"), is a method of binding that secures pre-trimmed sheets by the insertion of wire or plastic spirals through holes drilled in the binding edge. Similar to plastic binding, but more permanent.

Collate
to gather separate sections or leaves of a book together in the correct order for binding.

Color Correction
the process of adjusting an image to compensate for scanner deficiencies or for the characteristics of the output device.

Color Laser Proof
color proof output by our color laser printer. If the final product is not going to be printed on by the Color Printer do not consider the color absolute. (This is a good time to check for spelling, punctuation errors, font substitution, graphic problems and layout.)

Composite Color Proof
is an accurate representation of how your color will fall on your finished job. This is a good time to make sure everything is showing up right and that nothing has shifted. (This is NOT the time to check spelling, and punctuation because of the cost to make such changes.)

Crop Marks
lines printed showing the dimensions of the final printed page. These marks are used for final trimming.

Cropping
the elimination of parts of a photograph or other original that are not required to be printed. Cropping allows the remaining parts of the image to be enlarged to fill the space.

Die Cut
the trimming or cutting of a document into a pattern or shape.

Dot Gain
a printing defect in which dots print larger than intended, causing darker colors or tones; due to the spreading of ink on stock. The more absorbent the stock, the more dot gain. Can vary by type of ink as well.

DPI
DPI, also known as dot per inch or pixel per inch (PPI), indicates the resolution of the image; the more dots, the high the resolution.

EPS
EPS, also known as Encapsulated Post Script, is a high quality uncompressed raster file format that is ideal for saving photos and graphics.

Finished Size
the dimensions of a finished print job after folding and binding.

Flat Size
the dimensions of a finished print job before folding and binding.

Four Color Process
printing in full color using four color separation negatives - yellow, magenta, cyan and black. When blended, these four colors reproduce only a small portion of all the colors found in nature, but they can reproduce the widest range with the fewest inks when printing.

FTP
FTP, also known as file transfer protocol, is a system that transfer files to and from one location to another through a network.

Gradation
a smooth transition between black and white, one color and another, or color and the lack of it.

Grayscale
a range of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to black. Frequently used in discussions about scanners as a measure of their ability to capture halftone images. Basically the more levels the better but with correspondingly larger memory requirements.

Imposition

refers to the arrangement of pages on a printed sheet, which when the sheet is finally printed on both sides, folded and trimmed, will place the pages in their correct order.

Imprint
(1) the name and place of the publisher and printer required by law if a publication is to be published. Sometimes accompanied by codes indicating the quantity printed, month/year of printing and an internal control number. (2) when text is printed on preprinted stock on another press to add information.

Knockout
a shape or object printed by eliminating (knocking out) all background colors. Contrast to overprinting.

Laminate
a thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provide protection and give it a glossy finish.

Landscape
work in which the width used is greater than the height. Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which are printed 'sideways'. See portrait.

Layout
a sketch of a page for printing showing the position of text and illustrations and giving general instructions.

Leading
space added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual separation of the lines.

LPI
A measure of the frequency of a halftone screen (usually ranging from 55-200). Originally, halftones were made by placing an etched glass plate over an image and exposing it to produce dots. Lpi refers to the frequency of the horizontal and vertical lines.

Matte
a coated printing paper with a dull surface.

Metallic Ink
Printing inks which produce an effect gold, silver, bronze or metallic colors.

Multi Binding
also known as "Saddle Stitching" consists of a booklet folded in half and "stitched," or stapled, down the fold.

Outline
a typeface in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined rather than from solid strokes.

Overprinting
printing over an area already printed. Contrast with knockout.

Perfect Binding

a common method of binding paperback books. After the printed sections having been collated, the spines will be ground off and the cover glued on. Best associated with soft-cover/paperback books.

Perforate

tiny holes punched into a sheet, often used for tear-off cards.

Pixel
the smallest distinct unit of a bitmapped image displayed on a screen. If an item is considered "pixelated" the resolution is too low.

PMS
Pantone Matching System. A commonly used system for identifying specific ink colors.

Point
the standard unit of type size of which there are 72 to the inch (one point is approximately 0.01383in). Point size is the measured from the top of the ascender to the bottom of the descender.

Portrait
an upright image or page where the height is greater than the width.

PS
A page description language described by its creator (Adobe Systems) as "the language of desktop publishing." The PostScript language is a programming language spoken by desktop software after the "print" command is issued. These PostScript instructions created by the software (in partnership with the printer driver) are sent to a PostScript laser printer to describe the page the user wishes to have output. The PostScript laser printer has an interpreter inside (called a RIP) that takes that page description and instructs the laser how to image the page.

Resolution
refers to the quality of an image, measured in ppi (pixels per inch) or dpi (dots per inch).

Retouching
a means of altering an image to correct faults or enhance the image.

RGB
RGB (Red Green Blue) is a colour space that is used to produce colour on computer monitors only using a combination of the 3 different coloured lights.

RIP
Raster Image Processor. A RIP is a part of a PostScript laser printer and part of a PostScript imagesetter. It is a special computer that converts PostScript page descriptions into a rasterized image that can be edited or output directly. (A page layout must be ripped before it can be output.)

Saddle Stitching
also called multibinding, a method of binding where the folded pages are stitched through the spine from the outside, using wire staples. Usually limited to 64 pages size.

Scaling
a means of calculating the amount of enlargement or reduction necessary to accommodate a photograph within the area of a design.

Score
needed before folding (all heavy weight papers) to create an accurate and neat fold line.

Spell Check
a facility contained within a word processing and page layout programs to enable a spelling error to be caught in most cases before printing.

TIFF
TIFF, also known as Tagged Image file format can be either compressed or uncompressed file format, depending on how it is saved. Like EPS, TIFF is also an ideal format for saving photos and graphics. GIF is a raster file format that is best for low resolution images.

Tint
a screen or percentage of a solid color.

Transparency
a full color photographically produced image on transparent film.

Trim
the cutting of the finished product to the correct size. Marks are incorporated on the printed sheet to show where the trimming is to be made.

Typeface
the raised surface carrying the image of a type character cast in metal. Also used to refer to a complete set of characters forming a family in a particular design or style.

Typo
an abbreviation for typographical error. An error in the typeset copy.

Varnishing
a finishing process whereby a transparent varnish is applied over the printed sheet to produce a glossy finish.

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